George Rodney (1719-1792) began a acclaimed career in the Royal Navy in 1732. Over the abutting few decades he served with acumen in war and peace, while additionally demography a bench Parliament. During the Seven Years’ War, during which he was answer to rear admiral, he crowned a alternation of acknowledged operations with the abduction of Havana in 1762. Following the war he served as Governor of Greenwich Hospital, and from 1771 to 1774 he allowable the Jamaica Station. But the admiral’s affairs were shaky. He had astronomic expenses, what with outlays to abutment his political career, not to acknowledgment abundant life-style and an absorbing bank habit. With again end of his announcement to the Jamaica Station, Rodney went on half-pay. It was not abundant to awning his debts, and he fled England to abstain debtor’s prison, clearing in France.
Then came the American Revolution. In 1777, the Royal Navy offered Rodney a advance and command of the agile in the West Indies. But he had his debts to anguish about, and approved to acquisition the money to awning them, so that he could acknowledgment to Britain. Meanwhile, France entered the war on the ancillary of the Americans. It actuality the Age of Enlightenment, no one in France anticipation to apprehend the old gentleman. In fact, Rodney’s acceptable acquaintance the Duc de Biron, a Marshal of France, lent him £2,000 so he could go home, booty affliction of his debts, and accept his command, in the war adjoin France.
Biron’s generosity to his acquaintance amount France dearly. Rodney would go on to ambit the French from the Caribbean, consummate his accomplishment with a smashing achievement over the Comte de Grasse in the Battle of the Saintes (April 9-12, 1782).
The Cultural Fallout of the Bewilderment Catapult
Although we about anticipate of the appearance of women cutting their beard abbreviate as a twentieth aeon development, it absolutely can be said to date aback to the Hellenistic Age, and was aggressive by developments in aggressive technology, the addition of the bewilderment catapult.
The bewilderment ballista uses the activity stored in deeply askance ropes to accommodate the catalyst for casting projectiles abundant distances. Bewilderment catapults came in a abundant array of sizes. Some were about ample cantankerous bows, battlefront colossal arrows; there was alike an “automatic” version, with arrows bottomward from a alembic while a handle was cranked, to acknowledgment bewilderment to the ropes. Others were abundant larger, able to bung huge stones or jars that ability be abounding with incendiaries or alike snakes. Accepted from about 350 B.C., their use became boundless during the aboriginal Hellenistic period, in the wars of Alexander the Great’s “Successors” (332 B.C.-301 B.C.). Thereafter bewilderment catapults were a accepted affection of warfare in the Mediterranean region.
For example, during the abrade of Rhodes in 305 B.C. by Demetrious Poliorcetes, the Rhodians reputedly had hundreds of catapults, which they put to acceptable use, assault off the attacker, admitting the absorbing armory of war engines that he brought along. More than a aeon and a bisected later, in 149 B.C., during the abrade of Carthage by Scipio Aemilianus, the defenders reportedly acclimated some 2,000 bewilderment catapults, admitting they were clumsy to save the city.
Now the best bewilderment was provided by ropes fabricated from animal hair. So animal beard bound became what would, in the twentieth century, be accepted as a “strategic material.” The appeal charge accept been was enormous, for we accept some angle of the amounts needed. In 250 B.C. the Rhodians donated 300 talents of animal hair, conceivably 75 tons, to the bodies of Sinope, to advice them in a war adjoin Mithridates I of Pontus, and a division aeon after King Seleucus II of Syria donated several bags of animal beard to the Rhodians, allegedly as a way of advancement their accord in the accident he went to war with Ptolemaic Egypt.
Naturally, this beard had to appear from somewhere. Allegedly it was not aberrant for poor women in best Mediterranean acreage to advertise their hair, which would crop a tidy profit. So, at atomic amid poor women, beard styles would accept assorted greatly, with some accepting diffuse tresses, accessible for “harvest” and others abbreviate bobs, accepting aloof awash theirs, and abounding lengths in between.
Accounts of women sacrificing their beard to the war accomplishment are commonplace in age-old literature. But these apparently accredit primarily to high chic women, who commonly would not accept awash their hair, not defective the money.
World Record Holder?
Robert Corbet was one of the hundreds of men who captained ships in the Royal Navy during the continued wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon (1793-1815). Like most, his account was characterized by continued years on convoying alternate by casual blood-soaked sea fights. In Corbet’s case, his career concluded on September 12, 1810, back he was acutely wounded. Corbet was in command of HMS Africaine, a 44 gun frigate, one of a baby British fleet that affianced several French frigates off Mauritius. Of course, afterlife in activity was hardly a different distinction, for it was aggregate by bags of others during the wars. What fabricated Corbet an administrator of agenda was his barbarous command style.
Corbet admired to exhausted his men. No one knows how abounding he flogged, but in aloof 211 canicule from August of 1806 to March of 1807, whilst he allowable the frigate Seahorse (38 guns), in the Caribbean, he ordered 134 floggings, an boilerplate of three floggings every two days. The absolute cardinal of lashes inflicted was 2,278, authoritative for an boilerplate of 17 licks per flogging. Corbet was so brutal, his men petitioned the Royal Navy for redress, some mutinied, and once, back he was assigned a new ship, the aggregation banned to aggregation to apprehend his orders, until apprenticed by the adjacency of addition barge austere for action. Although accountable to a cloister martial, Corbet managed to exhausted the rap. Nevertheless, he additionally managed to abrade chief officers, who would apparently accept begin a affectation to abolish him had he not been dead in action.
Of course, there were additionally those who said that Cobert’s wounds were not acquired by the French . . . but he was smushed by a cannon ball, which suggests otherwise.
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